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紫砂壺之美-泥與火的結合 Clay and Fire: The Beauty of Purple Clay Teapots

Posted by CRM . on

文 By: 許玉蓮 Hooi Yoke Lien

紫砂器是陶瓷工藝裏很特殊的一個類別,它不必上釉就拿去燒,擁有泥土本身的美,燒制成的紫砂物純樸而真實,有光澤卻不耀眼,非常耐看,鑒賞及收藏紫砂壺,首先要學會欣賞泥土的美。

紫砂泥燒成的紫砂壺有一種“砂粒”的質感,那是別的陶瓷不會有的,再精細的紫砂看起來仍有半懸浮態的顆粒感,摸上去也不會太光滑,但也不會拉手或有澀感,這種質感讓人産生“溫度”,彷如這是砂壺的體溫。

紫砂泥基本上只有紫泥、紅泥、本山綠泥三種基泥,由於礦區、礦層的不同,所以開采出來的原礦石天生就擁有豐富的色彩。再經過制壺者對砂泥的篩選加工,以及養泥功夫的差異,一支壺還沒做出來,就可以在泥土質地上見真章了。

制壺者還可用各種純淨的泥質相拼配,塑造成多種泥色。可用不同顏色的泥條放在一起扭絞,形成多種顏色對比成為絞泥。可將泥混合摻入不同材質、不同顏色的顆粒,產生顏色深淺效果的泥料。也可將泥混合摻入不同大小的顆粒,產生梨皮效果。這些都屬于制壺者的創作範圍裏需要表現的地方,這就是爲何我們看到的每一支紫砂壺,都各自擁有自己的色彩斑斕面貌。

說紫砂壺的美,還要說到燒壺的窯火,好的泥料,需要有合適的窯火去燒,才能成爲精品。窯溫對一款紫砂壺的成型起著至關重要的作用,不但決定其質量還決定其美觀,比如窯溫不同,同一款紫砂泥料的作品燒出來的顔色會可以産生很大差別,所以一款成功的紫砂作品還需要有對窯溫的把控力。

紫砂壺在正常的燒成氣氛中,隨著溫度的變化,胎質呈色也會産生深淺不一的色調變化。溫度對紫砂壺色澤的影響,主要體現在紫砂坯體從開始燒結到過燒軟化溫度範圍內,通過適當改變燒成溫度及升溫速率曲線對紫砂壺外觀色澤進行改變。燒成良好的紫砂壺胎質致密,叩之聲音堅實,其色澤溫潤豐富,深沉古樸。


Purple Clay ware has a distinct place in the family of pottery and ceramic ware. Typically, it is fired in the kiln unglazed, making it a perfect showcase of the clay’s unique beauty. The finished objects have an unpretentious appearance and a natural, non-flashy glow. Incidentally, appreciating the beauty of clay is the very first step to becoming a connoisseur and collector of Purple Clay teapots.

The tactile sensation of ‘sand’, absent in most pottery and porcelain teapots, is prominent with the Purple Clay ones. Even the most refined Purple Clay teapots would have visible suspending sand granules on the surface. The body of the teapot is neither smooth nor rough and draggy. The feel is one of ‘warmth’, as if it is the natural body temperature of the Purple Clay teapots.

Basically, there are three types of clay, namely zisha (purple clay), hongni (red clay) and benshan lvni (green clay). The colours vary according to the mines and stratified layers, as original rocks and minerals have a kaleidoscopic array of hues. Meanwhile, individual pot maker’s screening and preparation of the excavated clay will make significant difference to the final look of the teapots. In a way, the clay has already decided the look and feel of the teapot even before it is formed.

Pot makers may alter and enrich the colours by mixing various types of pure clay. They may create a stronger juxtaposition of shades by twisting different clay strips together. Or else, they may add various materials or particles of different colours for a gradation of shades. Meanwhile, granules of different sizes may be mixed into the clay to come up with a more tactile ‘pear skin’ feel. These are the ways in which pot makers express their creativity, and the reason why there is a unique hue for each Purple Clay teapot.

Firing temperature is equally important in bringing out the beauty of a Purple Clay teapot. Good raw clay materials need the right kiln fire to become exquisite Purple Clay ware. Regulating fire temperature matters most to not just the quality but also the forming of the Purple Clay teapots; for example, a difference in temperature may result in considerable difference in hues for the finished products. To this end, successful control of kiln temperature is essential for a successful work of Purple Clay.

Under normal firing atmosphere, the shade of the clay changes along with temperature variation. The effect of temperature on the colour of the Purple Clay teapot mainly takes place within the range of temperature from the beginning of sintering to the softening point. With skilful manipulation of the firing temperature and heating-rate curve, the colour and appearance of the Purple Clay can be altered. A well-kilned Purple Clay teapot has a dense texture, rich warm hues, an unadorned charm and a solid sound with tapped.



上圖:本山綠泥,古名“梨皮泥“。礦土呈淡綠色層片狀,燒成陶後現梨皮凍色(米黃色),産于黃龍山岩層與紫泥共生礦層中,其礦物組成爲水雲母,高嶺石,石英及少量的鐵氧化物。本山綠泥含石英偏多,吸附水份相對偏多,在揮發過程中造成坯體的收縮大,也就是說燒制中容易開裂。

所以本山綠泥不易制作大件器物,大的本山綠泥茶壺可說是非常稀有且難得的工藝。本山綠泥燒出來是很嬌嫩的一種純純的黃顔色,本山綠泥在用久過後壺體會泛出青光,米黃底色更爲明顯、柔和,溫潤如玉。

Picture above : Known as ‘pear skin’ clay in the past, the stratified Green Clay is pale green in colour. After firing, it will become light yellow similar to that of the pear skin. Principally mined within the stratified layers of co-existing Huanglongshan rock and Purple Clay ; its main mineral constituents are mica, quartz, kaolinite and trace iron oxide. As the quartz content is high, it tends to absorb relatively more water. The clay body will contract significantly as the water evaporates, and is prone to cracking in the course of kilning.

Making large items with Green Clay is technically challenging. As such, a large Green Clay teapot is a rare example of masterful skill and craftsmanship. Teapot made with Green Clay distinguishes itself by a delicate pure yellow hue. Once used, it takes on a pale green glow which accentuates the soft and tender yellow hue that is as warm as jade.

Purple Clay Tea Tips 紫砂

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