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抹茶的栽培與品賞 Nurturing and Appreciating Matcha

Posted by CRM . on

文 By: 許玉蓮 Hooi Yoke Lien

春天屬於喝綠茶的季節,除了喝龍井、碧螺春,大家也喜歡點一碗抹茶來品賞。

抹茶出產自日本,是日本茶系中高級的茶品,另一最高級的茶品是玉露。其他日本常喝的綠茶依序有:煎茶、番茶、粉茶(製作煎茶時所剩餘的茶葉碎)、焙茶和莖茶。

本篇要談一談抹茶是什麼茶呢?抹茶的製作有三個關鍵詞:覆蓋、蒸汽殺青、天然石磨碾磨。

覆蓋:抹茶的原料是綠茶,製作這種綠茶的鮮葉只在春天采制。當茶樹長出新芽時,於採摘二十天前的時候,茶園必須搭起棚架,用蘆葦和稻草予以覆蓋,儘量將陽光完全遮擋住,避免直接日曬茶樹,使得茶樹能長出柔軟的新芽,藉以減弱鮮葉澀味,增加甘甜味。

經過這樣栽培的鮮葉製成的綠茶,才可以成為抹茶的原料。

蒸汽殺青:抹茶的原料—綠茶,必須在採下的當天,進行蒸汽殺青,這就是與一些綠茶採用高溫炒青方式的不一樣之處。

採用蒸汽殺青加工,構成了抹茶特殊的香氣和口感。

天然石磨碾磨:將採摘下來的茶葉經過蒸汽殺青後,直接烘乾的大片乾葉「荒茶」送進冷凍庫,於零度以下保存。接着在常溫下進行去除茶柄和莖等多道工序,成為「碾茶」。

碾茶用天然石磨碾成微小細膩的粉末就是「抹茶」。

天然石磨完成的抹茶,細度非常好,其溫度還能替抹茶提香,營造出抹茶的海苔和粽葉氣味。

抹茶就是綠茶粉嗎?不是,凡沒有完成上述三種製造工序,即運用沒有覆蓋的綠茶原料、炒青加工或用金屬粉碎機將茶粉碎的,就不能被稱作抹茶,只能被稱為綠茶粉。

抹茶鑒別時候需要注意以下幾點:
色澤--抹茶因為覆蓋蒸青,呈深綠或者墨綠,綠茶粉為草綠。
味道--抹茶不澀少苦,茶湯味道清雅圓潤,綠茶粉略苦澀。
香味--抹茶呈海苔、粽葉香氣,綠茶粉為青草香。
細度--抹茶細度達6000目以上(2微米),綠茶粉100---300目左右。

品飲抹茶的點茶法如下:
一.準備溫水—水溫約60°C~70 C °,水量約60CC。
二.準備茶具--茶匙一支,茶筅一支,茶碗(一人一個碗)。
三.準備抹茶--打開茶罐,用茶匙取2克抹茶放入碗內。
四.加少許溫水入碗。
五.用茶筅按照W的方向貼著碗底前後刷攪一會兒。
六.再加一點溫水入碗,繼續刷攪,使抹茶與水完全互溶,拌入大量空氣形成濃厚泡沫。
七.直接用碗飲用。



Spring is a season specially dedicated to green tea. In addition to Long Jing and Biluochun, we also enjoy appreciating a bowl of matcha.

Originated from Japan, matcha is a high quality green tea among Japanese tea. It is only second to Gyokuro. Popular green tea varieties in Japan include sencha, bancha, konacha (the tea buds and small leaves that are left behind after processing sencha), hojicha, and kukicha.

On this article we will discuss about what sort of tea the matcha is all about. The production of matcha involves three key processes, namely shade-grown, steam for harvest, and stone grinding.

Shade-grown: The material of matcha is green tea, and spring is the only season suitable for production of green tea leaves. As new buds are growing on the tea bushes – around 20 days before the harvest – the bushes shall be covered to prevent direct sunlight. The young buds can be covered by reed and rice straw. If possible, block direct sunlight entirely so that soft and new buds grow on tea bushes. This is to reduce the mouth-puckering taste of fresh leaves and enhance mellowness.

Only green tea produced from fresh leaves of such stringent process qualifies as the material for matcha.

Steam for harvest: The material of matcha – green tea leaves – has to be steamed for harvest. Steaming method is different from other stir frying methods of green tea leaves.

The process of steaming produces the unique fragrance and mouthfeel of matcha.

Stone grinding: Having steamed the harvesting leaves, keep the dried leaves in refrigerator at below-freezing temperature. Under room temperature, proceed with the process of cutting stem. It then becomes tencha.

Tencha can then be ground into very fine powder known as matcha.

Matcha produced by stone grinding is fine. Its temperature also brings out the fragrance of matcha – in the flavours of laver and reed.

Does this mean matcha is equivalent to green tea powder? Not really. Without the aforementioned processes – if the tea powder is produced from non-shade-grown tea leaves, and the stir-fried leaves are ground by machine – it is not matcha; it is green tea powder instead.


When evaluating matcha, several matters worth our attention. Firstly, matcha is covered by steam tea and thus appears to be deep or dark green. The green tea powder appears in the light greenness of grass. Secondly, matcha is without mouth-puckering taste and less bitter. While matcha provides pure and fine taste, green tea powder is slightly coarse. Thirdly, matcha is of the fragrance of laver and reed; green tea powder is of vanilla's fragrance. Fourthly, fineness – two micrometres have over 6,000 grains of matcha, while green tea powder numbers at 100 to 300 grains.

The methods to appreciate matcha are as follows –

I. Prepare 60 CC of hot water of 60 to 70 °C.
II. Prepare utensils – whisk (chasen), spoon (chashaku), and one bowl (chawan) for each person.
III. Prepare matcha – open the cover and take two grammes of matcha and put into the bowl.
IV. Pour small portion of hot water into the bowl.
V. With the whisk touching the bottom of the bowl, stir the tea in 'W' direction.
VI. Pour small portion of hot water into the bowl and continue stirring so that matcha and water perfectly blend with each other. As more air is stirred in, it thus produces thick foam.
VII. Drink from the bowl directly

 

準備抹茶--打開茶罐,用茶匙取2克抹茶放入碗內
Prepare matcha – open the cover and take two grammes of matcha and put into the bowl.

 


加少許溫水入碗
Pour small portion of hot water into the bowl.

 


用茶筅按照W的方向貼著碗底前後刷攪一會兒
With the whisk touching the bottom of the bowl, stir the tea in 'W' direction.

 


再加一點溫水入碗,繼續刷攪,使抹茶與水完全互溶,拌入大量空氣形成濃厚泡沫。
Pour small portion of hot water into the bowl and continue stirring so that matcha and water perfectly blend with each other. As more air is stirred in, it thus produces thick foam.

Green Tea Matcha Tea Brewing Method Tea Tips 抹茶 泡法 绿茶

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